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Paper summaries: IM alfaxalone in cats

The following paper summaries complement the article by Matt Gurney describing the intramuscular use of alfaxalone in cats 

Granfone M.C., Walker J.M & Smith L.J. (2017). Evaluation of an intramuscular butorphanol and alfaxalone protocol for feline blood donation: a pilot study. JFMS, 20(8): 793-798

Objective

A pilot study to evaluate sedation and cardiovascular parameters following a combination of intramuscular (IM) alfaxalone and butorphanol in cats undergoing blood donation

Method

Six healthy 12-14 month-old cats (5 female, one male) with a median bodyweight of 4.39kg (range 3.88-4.54kg) were included in the study.

A single IM injection of butorphanol 0.4mg/kg was followed 15 minutes later by alfaxalone 2mg/kg IM. If the patient was not recumbent after 10 minutes an additional dose of alfaxalone 1mg/kg was administered IM.

A sedation score assessed via observations of posture, behaviour and muscle relaxation, (range 0-3 with the higher score indicating higher levels of sedation) was assigned before and after administration of the drug combination. A score of at least 2 for each category i.e. sternal or lateral recumbency, minimal response to femoral pulse palpation, and moderate muscle relaxation, was considered necessary for successful jugular phlebotomy.  Time from IM alfaxalone administration to target sedation score, the duration of recumbency and the time to standing and ambulation were recorded.

Rectal temperature, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), mucous membrane colour, capillary refill time (CRT), Doppler arterial blood pressure (BP) and arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded for each cat just prior to drug administration, following achievement of the target sedation score and immediately following phlebotomy.

Results

The target sedation score of 2 was achieved in 3/6 cats following administration of butorphanol + alfaxalone IM. 3/6 cats required the additional single dose of alfaxalone 1mg/kg IM to achieve the same level of sedation. Phlebotomy was possible in all cases.

Median time from initial alfaxalone administration to recumbency was 11.5 minutes (range 6-20 minutes).  Median duration of recumbency was 53 minutes (range 43-83 minutes).

All cats maintained pink mucous membranes and CRT <2 seconds throughout the study period.

Neither hypotension or bradycardia were observed and there were no significant differences in baseline, post-sedation and post-phlebotomy HR (p = 0.395). BP did not differ significantly between baseline and post-phlebotomy although there was a significant reduction in post-sedation BP compared to baseline (p = 0.029). This was considered to be related to initially high baseline BP values as a result of stress associated with handling. Neither muscle fasciculation nor rigidity were observed.

Conclusion

The combination of butorphanol 0.4mg/kg and alfaxalone 2-3mg/kg provided sedation of healthy cats sufficient for blood donation via jugular phlebotomy with minimal cardiovascular changes or adverse effects.

 

Reader R.C., Barton B.A. & Abelson A. L. (2018). Comparison of two intramuscular sedation protocols on sedation, recovery and ease of venepuncture for cats undergoing blood donation.  JFMS, 21(2): 95-102

Objective

To compare quality of sedation, recovery and ease of venepuncture following two IM sedation protocols (alfaxalone + butorphanol versus dexmedetomidine + butorphanol) in cats.

Method

A randomised, blinded, crossover study in 10 healthy, client owned cats (5 male neutered, 5 female neutered) with a median age of 4.3 years (range 1.8-7.2 years) and median bodyweight of 5.2kg (range 4.4-7.0kg). Cats were randomly assigned to one of two sedation protocols prior to blood donation and 12-35 weeks later they received the second combination. The sedation protocols were: alfaxalone 2mg/kg + butorphanol 0.2mg/kg IM (AB) or dexmedetomidine 10µg/kg + butorphanol 0.2mg/kg IM (DB). Drug combinations were mixed in the same syringe. Observation of reaction to administration was performed.  Level of sedation (posture, behaviour and muscle relaxation - range of 0-3 with the higher score indicating higher levels of sedation) was assessed at 2, 5, 10, 15 & 20 minutes following drug administration. Sedation scoring ceased once the cat had attained a score of 3, or at 20 minutes. Recovery time to sternal recumbency was recorded. Gastrointestinal distress (salivation, lip smacking, vomiting) was assessed from the time of drug administration to discharge.

Results

No significant difference in reaction to IM administration between treatments (AB = 0, DB = 0) was observed in 9/10 cats (p = 0.77). There was no difference between treatment groups for posture or behaviour (p = 0.3 and 0.06 respectively). Significantly greater muscle relaxation was observed in the DB group (p = 0.03). 9/10 cats in each group achieved sedation sufficient to allow venepuncture. One cat was minimally sedated with both protocols and reacted to injections of both drug combinations. Median time to lateral recumbency was not significantly different between groups: AB 8.7 minutes (range 5.5-12.6); DB 4.8 minutes (range 3.1-22.5). No AB cat demonstrated gastrointestinal distress but one DB cat vomited. For AB the median recovery time to sternal recumbency was 32.1 minutes (range 28.9-57.6). 7/10 DB cats had not achieved sternal recumbency by 1-hour post drug administration and required atipamezole antagonisation of the dexmedetomidine. Recoveries were calm and smooth for all cats.

Conclusion

The combination of alfaxalone + butorphanol IM was a suitable alternative to dexmedetomidine + butorphanol for cats undergoing blood donation and provided a stress-free, efficient sedation with no apparent negative side effects.

 

Ribas T., Bublot I., Junot S., Beaufrere H., Rannou B., Gagniere P., Cadore J.L. & Parlaut R. (2014). Effects of Intramuscular Sedation with Alfaxalone and Butorphanol on Echocardiographic Measurements in Healthy Cats. JFMS, 17(6): 530-536

For a summary of this article please follow the link

 

Cremer J. & Ricco C.H. (2018). Cardiovascular, respiratory and sedative effects of intramuscular alfaxalone, butorphanol and dexmedetomidine compared with ketamine, butorphanol and dexmedetomidine in healthy cats. JFMS. 20(10): 973-979

Objective

To assess the cardiovascular and respiratory effects and quality of sedation and recovery following intramuscular alfaxalone/dexmedetomidine/butorphanol or ketamine/dexmedetomidine/butorphanol in cats

Method

A blinded, randomised, crossover study of 9 healthy adult (6.1 +/- 2.8 years) cats (7 neutered male, 2 neutered female) with a mean weight of 6.63kg (range 5.1-8.5kg). Animals were randomly allocated to receive both sedation protocols with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Alfaxalone 1mg/kg + dexmedetomidine 0.005mg/kg + butorphanol 0.2mg/kg (ADB) was compared to ketamine 5mg/kg + dexmedetomidine 0.005mg/kg + butorphanol 0.2mg/kg (KDB). Drug combinations were administered as a single injection into the epaxial musculature.

Measurements of HR, RR, BP, body temperature and arterial blood gas analysis,  including PaO2 and arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2),  were performed before drug administration and every 5 minutes post-injection for 30 minutes, then every 10 minutes until recovery. Reaction to drug administration and sedation (scored by observations of posture, behaviour and muscle relaxation) were recorded. Additionally, electrocardiography and PaO2, were recorded every 5 minutes during sedation.

Results

For both treatments all cats had attained lateral recumbency within 5 minutes of injection, with peak sedation by 15 minutes. Sedation scores were similar between groups for the first 35 minutes. Total sedation time was significantly shorter (p = 0.04) for ADB (90.71 +/- 15.12 minutes) than KDB (147 +/- 47.75 minutes). All cats recovered quietly without adverse events. RR fell in both groups compared to baseline (p = 0.0001) but was less severe in the ADB group (38 vs 32 breaths/min). PaO2 was significantly higher for ADB compared to KDB at 10 and 15 minutes (p = 0.03 and 0.01 respectively). For ADB mean PaO2 did not fall below 80mmHg whereas for KDB PaO2 was consistently less than 80 mmHg at all timepoints. PaCO2 was lower for ADB at all timepoints and significantly lower than KDB at 5 and 10 minutes (p = <0.012 and <0.005 respectively) although it was maintained within normal ranges for both groups.

HR was maintained within normal ranges for both groups although there was a significant fall for the first 35 minutes compared to baseline (p = 0.0002) and a slightly lower rate for ADB (144 bpm versus 157bpm for KDB). This may be related to the biphasic effect of dexmedetomidine on HR. BP was maintained within normal ranges throughout the study with no significant difference between groups, although at 30 minutes mean arterial pressure was lower for the ADB group compared to baseline (p = 0.04). This may be related to the pre-treatment stress of handling causing a higher baseline BP.

Conclusion

Both ADB and KDB provided good quality of sedation and recovery. Oxygenation was better maintained in cats receiving ADB. For shorter diagnostic procedures alfaxalone + dexmedetomidine + butorphanol may be the better choice.

 

Adami C., Imboden T., Giovannini A.E. & Spadavecchia C. (2016) Combinations of Dexmedetomidine and Alfaxalone with Butorphanol in Cats: Application of an Innovative Stepwise Optimisation Method to Identify Optimal Clinical Doses for Intramuscular Anaesthesia. JFMS 18(10): 846-863

Objective

To optimise the doses of dexmedetomidine and alfaxalone when combined with butorphanol required to induce general anaesthesia for the performance of minor surgical procedures in cats.

Method

A random, blinded dose optimisation study of 120 client owned healthy cats (61 male, 59 female) with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 1.6 years and a mean bodyweight of 4.2 +/- 0.8kg admitted for either wound management or radiography and external pin removal. Baseline measurements of HR, RR and rectal body temperature were obtained together with a temperament score (tranquil/quiet, stressed/scared or aggressive).

Cats were randomly allocated to one of 5 treatments (Table 1, groups A-E). Following analysis of data from these initial groups the doses of alfaxalone and dexmedetomidine were refined and additional cats were allocated to 3 further treatments (Table 1, groups N1, N2, N3). Drugs were combined in the same syringe. If the total volume exceeded 1ml the dose was divided equally and administered at two separate sites.

Time from injection to lateral recumbency and a composite anaesthesia score (0-5) were recorded together with any undesired effects. Following drug administration HR, RR, SpO2 and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were recorded every 5 minutes until completion of the procedure.  Atipamezole was administered IM at completion of the procedure and recovery was assessed on a scale of 1-14 based on comfort, coordination, vocalisation, movement during sternal recumbency, locomotor activity, scratching and grooming, together with a score of quality of recovery.

Results (see Table 1)

No cat demonstrated discomfort at the injection site and all drug combinations provided unresponsiveness sufficient for the completion of the clinical procedure. Time to anaesthesia was dependent on drug combination and varied from a median of 4 - 7.5 minutes. Anaesthesia and recovery were uneventful for all cats with mean recovery times from the point of atipamezole administration to active interaction varying from 7 - 18.5 minutes. No clinically relevant side effects were observed. No statistically significant differences were detected for HR (p = 0.76), RR (p = 0.32), SAP (p = 0.350) or rectal temperature (p = 1.12) either between groups or between timepoints, although hypertension (>150mmHg) and bradycardia (HR < 100bpm) were observed in 11% and 25% of patients respectively. 

Conclusion

The combination alfaxalone 2.5mg/kg + dexmedetomidine 0.014mg/kg + butorphanol 0.3mg/kg administered intramuscularly produced good quality, reliable, rapid onset (median 5 minutes, range 1-11) anaesthesia in cats with no complications. Median recovery time following IM atipamezole administration was 9.5 minutes (range 2-35 minutes). This combination is suitable for minor procedures in healthy cats.

 

Khenissi L. Nikolayenkova-Tople O., Broussaud S. & Touzot-Jourde G. (2017). Comparison of intramuscular alfaxalone and ketamine combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for castration in cats. JFMS, 19(8): 791-797

Objective

To evaluate the cardiorespiratory parameters and anaesthetic quality in cats undergoing castration when administered either alfaxalone or ketamine in combination with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol.

Method

A prospective, randomised study of thirty-two healthy client-owned male cats with a mean age of 10.34 +/- 5.4 months and mean bodyweight of 3.62 +/- 0.75kg admitted for castration. Baseline HR, RR and rectal temperature values were recorded and patients randomly allocated to receive one of two protocols: dexmedetomidine 0.01mg/kg + butorphanol 0.2mg/kg with either alfaxalone 3mg/kg (group ADB) or ketamine 5mg/kg (group KDB). Drug combinations were mixed in the same syringe and administered into the lumbar musculature.  Reaction to needle insertion and drug administration were recorded by the same operator for all animals. HR, RR and a score of sedation (posture, behaviour and muscle relaxation. Scoring range of 0-3 with the higher score indicating higher levels of sedation) were recorded at 10 & 15 minutes post-injection. If anaesthesia was considered inadequate for endotracheal intubation, or at any point during the procedure, alfaxalone 0.3mg/kg or ketamine 0.5mg/kg was administered intravenously. HR, RR, pulse rate, oscillometric SAP, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures, SpO2, end tidal carbon dioxide ETCO2 and depth of anaesthesia were recorded every 5 minutes until return of palpebral and swallowing reflexes. Time from extubation to sternal recumbency was recorded and sedation scores, recovery quality, ambulation, attitude, position and presence of ataxia and pain were recorded at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 and 240 minutes post extubation.

Results

There was no statistical difference between groups for reaction to needle insertion or drug administration. Significantly more cats in the KDB group required top-up anaesthesia (p = 0.006) and they also required more top-ups (p = 0.03). RR was significantly lower for group KDB compared to group ADB (p = 0.05). Although RR was significantly lower compared to baseline at 10 and 15 minutes for both groups (p = 0.05). SpO2 remained within the normal range. One cat, a Persian, was excluded from group ADB due to apnoea that responded to endotracheal intubation. Airway conformation was considered to be a factor in this case. The authors considered the significantly longer time from intubation to extubation for group ADB (62.06 +/- 14.67 minutes) compared to 27.27 +/- 2.49 minutes for group KDB (p = 0.00046) may have been due to relative underdosing of ketamine, delays to the start of surgery, different modes of action of alfaxalone and ketamine, the dose-dependent duration of action of alfaxalone or underdosing of dexmedetomidine.  All cats achieved sternal recumbency 15-30 minutes following extubation with significantly more (9/16) group ADB cats ambulatory at 30 minutes post extubation versus 2/6 from group KDB (p = 0.01). ADB cats were also less ataxic at 120 minutes (p = 0.003). Quality of recovery at 60 minutes was significantly better for group ADB compared to KDB (p = 0.05). Excitement was observed on one KDB cat during recovery.

Conclusion

In healthy cats, cardiorespiratory parameters following IM administration of alfaxalone + dexmedetomidine + butorphanol remained within clinically acceptable ranges. IM alfaxalone was a suitable alternative to ketamine, when combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol, for minor surgical procedures lasting < 1 hour.

 

Mahdmina A., Evans A., Yates D. & White K.L. (2020). Comparison of the Effects of Buprenorphine and Methadone in Combination with Medetomidine Followed by Intramuscular Alfaxalone for Anaesthesia of Cats Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy. JFMS, 22(2): 77-83

Objective

To compare the quality of anaesthesia and analgesia following IM medetomidine in combination with either methadone or buprenorphine followed 15 minutes later by IM alfaxalone in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Method

51 client-owned and shelter housed healthy female cats, with a median age of 12 months (range 2-60) and a mean bodyweight of 2.5 +/- 0.5kg were recruited for the stud and randomly assigned to receive premedication with medetomidine 600 μg/m2 and buprenorphine 180 μg/m2 (group MB, n = 21) or medetomidine 500 μg/m2 and methadone 5 mg/m2 (group MM, n = 20) IM. Alfaxalone 3 mg/kg was administered IM 15 minutes later to induce anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen via an endotracheal tube.  HR, RR, CRT, mucous membrane colour, peripheral pulse and auricular temperature were measured prior to premedication and thereafter every 5 minutes. A single blinded observer assessed quality of sedation and 5 minutes after alfaxalone administration induction quality was recorded together with response to laryngeal application of local anaesthetic spray and intubation. During anaesthesia additional observations of SpO2, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BP were performed and recorded. All surgery was performed by a single surgeon. Atipamezole was administered IM immediately after extubation. HR, RR and temperature were recorded at extubation and thereafter at 10, 20 and 30 minutes at which timepoints pain was also assessed.

Results

There were no significant differences between groups for quality of induction, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BP, response to laryngeal application of local anaesthetic, intubation, mucous membrane colour, CRT, and surgical time. Endotracheal intubation at 5 minutes post-alfaxalone was possible in all cats. Temperature, HR and RR did not differ significantly between groups but compared to baseline were reduced following premedication, induction of anaesthesia, at extubation and the first 30 minutes of recovery, but remained within normal limits. Apnoea was not observed. At 10 minutes post-extubation the pain score for group MB was significantly higher than the MM group (p = 0.0272) but rescue analgesia was not required.

For both groups sedation was profound and permitted physical examination and administration of IM alfaxalone. Induction of anaesthesia with alfaxalone IM was well tolerated and permitted endotracheal intubation. There was no post-induction apnoea and cardiorespiratory depression was minimal. Recoveries were smooth and excitement-free with 75% of cats attaining a normal posture at 30 minutes post-extubation. 90% cats were eating at this timepoint.

Conclusion

When combined with medetomidine 600 μg/m2, both methadone 5 mg/m2 and buprenorphine 180 μg/m2 provided reliable and stable sedation in healthy cats. IM alfaxalone 3mg/kg administered 15 minutes later produced anaesthesia suitable for ovariohysterectomy and was followed by a smooth recovery. 

Article by
Dr. Karen Heskin
BVSc CertSAO MRCVS

Originally published: Wednesday, 3rd February 2021

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New! Methadyne, Our New Methadone Now Available

This is our third product launch this year, and the latest addition to our anaesthesia and analgesia portfolio, Methadyne, contains 10mg/ml methadone as its active ingredient. It can be administered for analgesia of moderate to severe pain in dogs and cats, to provide neuroleptanalgesia, and as part of a patient’s premedication protocol prior to general anaesthesia.

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A retrospective comparison of two analgesic strategies after uncomplicated tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in dogs.

In this review we summarise a publication by Bini (2018) examining two protocols for the administration of methadone following TPLO surgery in dogs.

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Practical Acute Pain Assessment

In this summary of acute pain assessment, Carl Bradbrook examines why we should be monitoring patients for pain and looks at the commonly used scoring systems.

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Alfaxan for the maintenance of anaesthesia: Peer reviewed clinical papers.

In this article we have identified the key clinical peer reviewed papers to support the use of Alfaxan for maintenance of Anaesthesia in Cats and Dogs.

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TIVA or not? (Total intravenous anaesthesia).

In this article the Jurox UK Technical Team discuss the use of intravenous agents to maintain anaesthesia in the dog and cat.

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Benzodiazepines - can they help reduce anaesthesia related side effects?

In part 4 of this series on premedicant agents we examine the pros and cons of benzodiazepines.

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Paper summary: Effect of benzodiazepines on the dose of alfaxalone needed for endotracheal intubation in healthy dogs

This paper examined whether a benzodiazepine, administered as a co-induction agent with alfaxalone, improved endotracheal intubation, and reduced the dose of alfaxalone, in the dog

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Putting methadone in its place in your pain management.

In this article we examine why methadone could be considered the analgesic of choice for many of our patients and understand its importance in modern veterinary medicine. The article includes a link to a downloadable summary sheet.

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Food for Thought: Pre-anaesthetic Fasting

In this article Karen examines why we fast our canine and feline patients prior to anaesthesia and what the current recommendations are. Karen also investigates why rabbits are different and should not be starved before anaesthesia.

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​Purr-fecting Pain Management

In this article summary we examine which of the two opioids, buprenorphine or butorphanol, provides the most appropriate analgesia following ovariohysterectomy in the cat.

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Perspectives on Premeds - Phenothiazines: from Mental Health to Premedication

In this article from the Perspectives on Premeds series, Karen takes us through the properties and uses of phenothiazines in modern veterinary practice.

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Methadone with Acepromazine - when is enough, enough?

This study looks at the effects of three methadone doses combined with acepromazine on sedation and some cardiopulmonary variables in dogs.

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AceSedate®, Our New Acepromazine, Available Now.

We have extended our anaesthesia and analgesia portfolio with the launch of AceSedate®. Containing the tried and trusted, long-acting sedative agent acepromazine as its active ingredient, AceSedate can be used for the premedication, sedation and tranquilisation of cats and dogs.

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Time: is 30 minutes long enough?

This recent study examined whether the application of EMLA cream, for 30 or 60 minutes, would be a useful tool to improve patient compliance prior to intravenous cannula placement in the veterinary clinical practice setting.

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Caesarean Section Survival Guide. Part 2: Anaesthetic Protocol Selection & Peri-operative Considerations.

In this second instalment of the 2-part article, we explore premedication, induction, maintenance & monitoring, recovery and analgesia for the Caesarean section patient.

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Buprenorphine: it’s not all static in rabbits

Opioids are well known for causing gastrointestinal stasis in mammalian species. This recent paper examined the effects of a single high dose of buprenorphine on the rabbit gastrointestinal tract using non-invasive imaging techniques.

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Caesarean Section Survival Guide. Part 1: Physiology & Pre-anaesthetic Considerations.

In the first instalment of this 2-part review Karen examines the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and how those adjustments can affect the selection of anaesthetic protocols for the increasingly common Caesarean section.

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No leeway for the spay: A comparison between methadone and buprenorphine for perioperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

This recent paper compares post-operative pain scores and requirement for rescue analgesia following premedication with methadone or buprenorphine, in combination with acepromazine or medetomidine, in 80 bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

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Cardiac arrest - the human factor

Cardiac arrest in dogs and cats is, thankfully, relatively rare. However, when it does happen it can have devastating consequences for the animal, owner and the veterinary team. This study examined the common causalities leading up to a cardiac arrest with the aim of changing protocols to improve outcomes.

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Are you Using Safety Checklists in your Practice?

In this article, Carl focuses on the benefits of introducing a safety checklist in practice to reduce patient morbidity, mortality and to improve communication between members of the veterinary team. The article contains links to the AVA safety checklist as well as a link to a customisable list that you can adapt to your practice needs. 

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The Big Chill - Temperature Management in Sedated and Anaesthetised Patients

The effects of hypothermia are very far reaching throughout the peri-anaesthetic process. In this article, James takes us through the interesting mechanisms of body cooling and warming, the clinical relevance of hypothermia and what we can do to prevent it.

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Keeping the Finger on the Pulse -  Nuances in CV Monitoring

All patients are exposed to the risks associated with general anaesthesia. Continuously monitoring anaesthetised patients maximises patients safety and wellbeing. In this article, Dan takes us through the common monitoring techniques that provide information about the cardiovascular status of your patient. 

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Effect of Maropitant on Isoflurane Requirements & Postoperative Nausea & Vomiting

Despite being widely recognized in humans, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and the role of maropitant in reducing inhalational anaesthetic requirements have been poorly documented in dogs. This recent study evaluates PONV and isoflurane requirements after maropitant administration during routine ovariectomy in bitches.

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New! Alfaxan® Multidose Now Available

We are happy to announce we have enhanced our anaesthesia and analgesia portfolio with the introduction of Alfaxan®Multidose for dogs, cats and pet rabbits.

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Sevoflurane requirement in dogs premedicated with medetomidine and butorphanol

Little information is available about the effect that different doses of medetomidine and butorphanol may have when using sevoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in dogs. This recent study evaluates heart rate and median sevoflurane concentration required at different dose rates.

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Capnography II - What happened to the elephants? A summary of abnormal traces

In this second article of the capnography series, James provides a guide to a few of the most common traces that you will encounter during surgery. Scroll to the end of the article to download a printable capnography cheatsheet. 

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Pain, what a Pain! (Part 2) – Practical Tips On How To Perform Dental Nerve Blocks In Companion Animal Practice

In this second article of the Pain, what a Pain! series, Dan takes us through the LRA techniques associated with dental and oral surgery. In this article, you will find practical tips and pictures on common dental nerve blocks as well as safety concerns to consider.

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​Peri-anaesthetic mortality and nonfatal gastrointestinal complications in pet rabbits

This recent retrospective study looks at the cases of 185 pet rabbits admitted for sedation or general anaesthetic and evaluates the incidence and risk factors contributing to peri-anaesthetic mortality and gastrointestinal complications.

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Pain, what a Pain! How Locoregional Anaesthesia can Improve the Outcome and Welfare of Veterinary Patients (Part 1)

In this first article out of a series of two, Dan takes us through an introduction and practical tips for appropriate local anaesthesia delivery. Find out why these anaesthesia techniques, that are well recognised in human medicine, have seen an increase in popularity in veterinary medicine over the recent years

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Perspectives on Premeds – Opioids

Perspectives on Premeds is a series of articles touching on different pharmacological, physiological and clinical aspects of pre-anaesthetic medication. This second article aims to provide a refresher on opioids.

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Effects of Dexmedetomidine with Different Opioid Combinations in Dogs

Read the highlights of a recently published research paper that evaluates cardiorespiratory, sedative and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine alone and in combination with morphine, methadone, meperidine, butorphanol, nalbuphine and tramadol. 

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Preoxygenation Study Highlights

This study evaluates the effectiveness of two methods of preoxygenation in healthy yet sedated dogs and the impact of these methods on time taken to reach a predetermined haemoglobin desaturation point (haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) of 90%) during an experimentally induced period of apnoea.

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Capnography – Not Just a Load of Hot Air

Capnography is the measurement of inhaled and exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. The graphical illustration of CO2 within respired gases versus times is known as the capnogram.

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Perspectives on Premeds – Alpha-2 Agonists

Perspectives on Premeds is a series of articles touching on different pharmacological, physiological and clinical aspects of pre-anaesthetic medication. This first article aims to provide a refresher on α2 agonists.

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Alfaxan - now licensed for use in pet rabbits

Jurox Animal Health is delighted to announce that Alfaxan is now licensed for cats, dogs and pet rabbits. This is an exciting advance and could change the way rabbits are anaesthetised in the U.K.

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